Enhancing the QUAlity and Transparency Of health Research
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|Reporting guideline provided for?
(i.e. exactly what the authors state in the paper)
|Observational studies in epidemiology (cohort, case-control studies, cross-sectional studies)
STROBE checklist: combined Word / PDF
STROBE checklist: cohort studies Word / PDF
STROBE checklist: case-control studies Word / PDF
STROBE checklist: cross-sectional studies Word / PDF
|Full bibliographic reference||von Elm E, Altman DG, Egger M, Pocock SJ, Gotzsche PC, Vandenbroucke JP. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies.
This guideline was published simultaneously in 8 journals. You can read the guideline in any of these journals using the links below.
Ann Intern Med. 2007; 147(8):573-577. PMID: 17938396
PLoS Med. 2007;4(10):e296. PMID: 17941714
BMJ. 2007;335(7624):806-808. PMID: 17947786
Prev Med. 2007;45(4):247-251. PMID: 17950122
Epidemiology. 2007;18(6):800-804. PMID: 18049194
Lancet. 2007;370(9596):1453-1457. PMID: 18064739
J Clin Epidemiol. 2008;61(4):344-349. PMID: 18313558
Bull World Health Organ. 2007;85(11):867-872. PMID: 18038077
|Explanation and elaboration papers||Vandenbroucke JP, von Elm E, Altman DG, Gotzsche PC, Mulrow CD, Pocock SJ, Poole C, Schlesselman JJ, Egger M. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE): Explanation and Elaboration.
The explanation and elaboration paper for this guideline was published simultaneously in 3 journals. You can read the explanation and elaboration paper in any of these journals using the links below.
PLoS Med. 2007;4(10):e297. PMID: 17941715
Epidemiology. 2007;18(6):805-35. PMID: 18049195
Ann Intern Med. 2007;147(8):W163-94. PMID: 17938389
The EQUATOR team edited a textbook called Guidelines for Reporting Health Research: A User’s Manual. It includes chapters on the guidelines most commonly required by journals. You can read Chapter 17, on STROBE, here.
|Availability in additional languages||The STROBE Statement has been translated into the following languages: Chinese (PDF); German (PDF); Greek (PDF); Japanese (PDF); Portuguese (PDF - unofficial translation); Spanish (PDF); Italian (PDF).
The STROBE explanation and elaboration paper has been translated into the following languages: Japanese (E&E PDF); Spanish (E&E PDF).
The STROBE checklist has been translated into the following languages: Persian (checklist PDF).
Visit our translations page to find out what other reporting guidelines are available in languages other than English: reporting guideline translations
|Relevant more generic / specialised reporting guidelines
(i.e. main generic guideline or extension to a generic guideline)
STREGA: Little J, Higgins JP, Ioannidis JP, Moher D, Gagnon F, von Elm E, Khoury MJ, Cohen B, Davey-Smith G, Grimshaw J, Scheet P, Gwinn M, Williamson RE, Zou GY, Hutchings K, Johnson CY, Tait V, Wiens M, Golding J, van Duijn C, McLaughlin J, Paterson A, Wells G, Fortier I, Freedman M, Zecevic M, King R, Infante-Rivard C, Stewart A, Birkett N; STrengthening the REporting of Genetic Association Studies. STrengthening the REporting of Genetic Association Studies (STREGA): An Extension of the STROBE Statement.
PLoS Med. 2009;6(2):e22. PMID: 19192942
Hum Genet. 2009;125(2):131-151. PMID: 19184668
Eur J Epidemiol. 2009;24(1):37-55. PMID: 19189221
Ann Intern Med. 2009;150(3):206-215. PMID: 19189911
J Clin Epidemiol. 2009;62(6):597-608.e4. PMID: 19217256
Genet Epidemiol. 2009;33(7):581-598. PMID: 19278015
Eur J Clin Invest. 2009;39(4):247-266. PMID: 19297801
STROBE-ME: Gallo V, Egger M, McCormack V, Farmer PB, Ioannidis JP, Kirsch-Volders M, Matullo G, Phillips DH, Schoket B, Stromberg U, Vermeulen R, Wild C, Porta M, Vineis P. STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology - Molecular Epidemiology (STROBE-ME): An extension of the STROBE statement. Eur J Clin Invest. 2012;42(1):1-16. PMID: 22023344
STROBE checklist for conference abstracts
First draft of the STROBE checklist of items to be included when reporting observational studies in conference abstracts. Link to full text pdf
STROME-ID: Field N, Cohen T, Struelens MJ, Palm D, Cookson B, Glynn JR, Gallo V, Ramsay M, Sonnenberg P, Maccannell D, Charlett A, Egger M, Green J, Vineis P, Abubakar I. Strengthening the Reporting of Molecular Epidemiology for Infectious Diseases (STROME-ID): an extension of the STROBE statement. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014. pii: S1473-3099(13)70324-4. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(13)70324-4. PMID: 24631223
Longitudinal observational drug studies in rheumatology: Zavada J, Dixon WG, Askling J. Launch of a checklist for reporting longitudinal observational drug studies in rheumatology: a EULAR extension of STROBE guidelines based on experience from biologics registries. Ann Rheum Dis. 2014;73(3):628. PMID: 24058015
Case-cohort studies: Sharp SJ, Poulaliou M, Thompson SG, White IR, Wood AM. A review of published analyses of case-cohort studies and recommendations for future reporting. PLoS One. 2014;9(6):e101176. PMID: 24972092
STROBE-RDS: White RG, Hakim AJ, Salganik MJ, Spiller MW, Johnston LG, Kerr L, Kendall C, Drake A, Wilson D, Orroth K, Egger M, Hladik W. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology for respondent-driven sampling studies: "STROBE-RDS" statement. J Clin Epidemiol. 2015 May 1. PMID: 26112433
RECORD: Benchimol EI, Smeeth L, Guttmann A, Harron K, Moher D, Petersen I, Sørensen HT, von Elm E, Langan SM; RECORD Working Committee. The REporting of studies Conducted using Observational Routinely-collected health Data (RECORD) Statement. PLoS Med. 2015;12(10):e1001885. PMID: 26440803
STROBE-AMS: Tacconelli E, Cataldo MA, Paul M, Leibovici L, Kluytmans J, Schröder W, Foschi F, De Angelis G, De Waure C, Cadeddu C, Mutters NT, Gastmeier P, Cookson B. STROBE-AMS: recommendations to optimise reporting of epidemiological studies on antimicrobial resistance and informing improvement in antimicrobial stewardship. BMJ Open. 2016;6(2):e010134. PMID: 26895985
STROBE-nut: Lachat C, Hawwash D, Ocké MC, Berg C, Forsum E, Hörnell A, Larsson C, Sonestedt E, Wirfält E, Åkesson A, Kolsteren P, Byrnes G, De Keyzer W, Van Camp J, Cade JE, Slimani N, Cevallos M, Egger M, Huybrechts I. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology—Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut): An Extension of the STROBE Statement. PLoS Med; 2016:13(6):e1002036. PMID: 27270749
Simulation Research: Cheng A, Kessler D, Mackinnon R, Chang TP, Nadkarni VM, Hunt EA, Duval-Arnould J, Lin Y, Cook DA, Pusic M, Hui J, Moher D, Egger M, Auerbach M; International Network for Simulation-based Pediatric Innovation, Research, and Education (INSPIRE) Reporting Guidelines Investigators. Reporting Guidelines for Health Care Simulation Research: Extensions to the CONSORT and STROBE Statements. Simul Healthc. 2016;11(4):238-248. PMID: 27465839
ROSES-I: Horby PW, Laurie KL, Cowling BJ, Engelhardt OG, Sturm-Ramirez K, Sanchez JL, Katz JM, Uyeki TM, Wood J, Van Kerkhove MD; CONSISE Steering Committee. CONSISE statement on the reporting of Seroepidemiologic Studies for influenza (ROSES-I statement): an extension of the STROBE statement. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2016 Jul 15. PMID: 27417916
STROBE-NI: Fitchett EJA, Seale AC, Vergnano S, Sharland M, Heath PT, Saha SK, Agarwal R, Ayede AI, Bhutta ZA, Black R, Bojang K, Campbell H, Cousens S, Darmstadt GL, Madhi SA, Meulen AS, Modi N, Patterson J, Qazi S, Schrag SJ, Stoll BJ, Wall SN, Wammanda RD, Lawn JE, on behalf of the SPRING (Strengthening Publications Reporting Infection in Newborns Globally) Group. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology for Newborn Infection (STROBE-NI): an extension of the STROBE statement for neonatal infection research. Lancet Infect Dis. 2016;16(10):e202-13. PMID: 27633910
Propensity score analysis: Yao XI, Wang X, Speicher PJ, Hwang ES, Cheng P, Harpole DH, Berry MF, Schrag D, Pang HH. Reporting and Guidelines in Propensity Score Analysis: A Systematic Review of Cancer and Cancer Surgical Studies. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2017;109(8). PMID: 28376195
RECORD-PE: Langan SM, Schmidt SAJ, Wing K, Ehrenstein V, Nicholls SG, Filion KB, Klungel O, Petersen I, Sorensen HT, Dixon WG, Guttmann A, Harron K, Hemkens LG, Moher D, Schneeweiss S, Smeeth L, Sturkenboom M, von Elm E, Wang SV, Benchimol EI. The reporting of studies conducted using observational routinely collected health data statement for pharmacoepidemiology (RECORD-PE). BMJ 2018;363:k3532.
|Reporting guideline acronym||STROBE|
|Study design||Observational studies|
|Applies to the whole report or to individual sections of the report?||Whole report|
|Previous versions of this guideline / Guideline history||STROBE 2004/2005|
|Additional information||What is STROBE?
STROBE stands for an international, collaborative initiative of epidemiologists, methodologists, statisticians, researchers and journal editors involved in the conduct and dissemination of observational studies, with the common aim of STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology.
The STROBE Statement is being endorsed by a growing number of biomedical journals.
Aims and use of STROBE
Incomplete and inadequate reporting of research hampers the assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of the studies reported in the medical literature. Readers need to know what was planned (and what was not), what was done, what was found, and what the results mean. Recommendations on the reporting of studies that are endorsed by leading medical journals can improve the quality of reporting.
Observational research comprises several study designs and many topic areas. We aimed to establish a checklist of items that should be included in articles reporting such research - the STROBE Statement. We considered it reasonable to initially restrict the recommendations to the three main analytical designs that are used in observational research: cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. We want to provide guidance on how to report observational research well. Our recommendations are not prescriptions for designing or conducting studies. Also, the checklist is not an instrument to evaluate the quality of observational research.
The STROBE initiative should be seen as an ongoing process, with future revisions of the recommendations based on comments, critique and new evidence. We welcome translations into other languages and extensions to other observational study designs, for example nested case-control studies, and specific topic areas, for example, genetic and molecular epidemiology.
Note: We ask anyone intending to use the STROBE Statement for further extensions, translations or other STROBE-related work to contact the coordinating group through this website first. This will allow to coordinate efforts and to avoid duplication. The authors of the original STROBE articles hold the copyright. Please, contact us if you wish to re-publish STROBE material in additional journals, books or other media.
A full list of all STROBE group members and contributors is available at: STROBE initiative group and contributors (pdf)
Contact the STROBE Initiative
For comments on the STROBE Statement, as well as any other questions or suggestions, please contact the STROBE initiative coordinator:
University of Bern
Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine
Clinical Epidemiology & Biostatistics
CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland
|Selected relevant editorials||Uhlig K, Menon V, Schmid CH. Recommendations for Reporting of Clinical Research Studies. Am J Kidney Dis. 2007;49(1):3-7. PMID: 17185140|
|Record last updated on||November 15, 2018|
|Clinical practice guidelines||AGREE||RIGHT|
|Animal pre-clinical studies||ARRIVE|
|Quality improvement studies||SQUIRE|